In the early 1950s the prevailing view was that the genes in a chromosome acted like discrete entities, indivisible by recombination and arranged like beads on a string. The experiments of Benzer using mutants defective in the rII region of bacteriophage T4 (1955-1959) showed that individual genes have a simple linear structure and are likely to be equivalent to a linear section of DNA.  
It should also not be confused with horizontal gene transfer , a process in which an organism incorporates genetic material from another organism without being the offspring of that organism.
The earliest instances of what might today be called genetic algorithms appeared in the late 1950s and early 1960s, programmed on computers by evolutionary biologists ...
Skeptics warn that genetic modification has never been tried at such a large scale in the wild and they fear it may cause unforeseen consequences in other species. Scientists argue that such runaway side effects are unlikely given the way in which they’ve narrowly tailored their gene editing work. But that response hasn’t quelled opposition. Indeed, many genetic modification projects, including the Florida project, have been held up out of public concern.
A quantitative trait (see quantitative trait locus ) is a measurable trait that shows continuous variation, such as height or weight. Quantitative traits often have a 'normal' distribution in the population. In addition to the case control design, quantitative trait association can also be performed using an unrelated population sample or family trios in which the quantitative trait is measured in the offspring.
Zika virus is transmitted to people primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito ( Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus ). These are the same mosquitoes that spread dengue and chikungunya viruses.